Европейски конгрес по хипертония и сърдечно-съдова профилактика в Лондон, Великобритания 2012 г.

Awareness of the Bulgarian population about arterial hypertension, concomitant cardiovascular risk factors and personal risk profile

St. Naydenov, Sv. Torbova, Sv. Tsonev, N. Naydenova, Sn. Tisheva, V. Sirakova, G. Ivanova

Objective: Assessment of the awareness of the Bulgarian population about arterial hypertension (AH), other concomitant cardiovascular risk factors (RF) – obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, salt consumption and their risk profile.

Design and method: A cross-sectional study, held between the 15th and 19th of May, 2011. The study, devoted to the World Hypertension Day 2011 was organized by the Bulgarian Hypertension League with the joint support of the Bulgarian Red Cross, Bulgarian Patient’s Organization and National Student’s Organization. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-one consecutive people from 58 different cities, towns and villages were included in the study – 764 males and 1067 females, mean age 54,3±18,1 (9-93) years. Open-air stands were organized in eight large Bulgarian cities. At these stands blood pressure (BP), blood sugar (BS), waist circumference (WaC), height and weight of the participants were measured and body-mass index (BMI) calculated by trained students in Medicine.  Besides, a structured questionnaire was completed, containing questions about lifestyle, awareness and presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

Results: One thousand and thirty-three people of all included participants (76.4%) – 499 males (72.2%) and 800 females (79.1%), p<0.001 were informed of the threshold values above which BP is considered to be high. Blood pressure <140/90 mmHg was measured in 351 (57.4%) of the informed participants. People, informed about the desired systolic and diastolic BP values, connected with lowest cardiovascular risk were 1423 (83.1%) –  543 (80.2%) of the males and 847 (85.3%) of the females, p<0.05. One thousand three hundred and six (77.2%) of the participants included in our study knew their own BP. History of AH was found in 793 (45.9%) of all participants and measured values of BP <140/90 mmHg were found in 242 (75.2%) of those who considered themselves normotensives. Blood pressure <140/90 was found in 128 (37.8%) of people from our study with established AH. The number of people informed about the admissible daily amount of salt consumption was 1029 (78.9%). Assessment of obesity showed that 383 (26.8%) of all participants were informed about their WaC – 129 (22.9%) of the males and 248 (29.8%) of the females (p<0.05); 74 (7.3%) knew their BMI. Abnormally increased WaC (> 94 cm for males and >80 for females) was found in 1073 (58.6%), females being affected to a greater extent (54.3% versus 45.8% of the males, p<0.05). Body-mass index >25 was found in 1054 (57.6%) – 527 (68.97%) of the males and 546 (51.2%) of the females, p<0,05. Five hundred and ninety-seven people (32.6%) were informed about the value of their blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus was present in 177 (10.0%) participants. Dyslipidemia was present in 438 (25.2%) – 154 (22.5%) and 269 (26.5%) of females, p<0.05. Combination of 2 cardiovascular RF was found in 814 (44.5%), most frequently AH and obesity – 399 (21.8%), combination of 3 RF – 287 (15.6%), 4 RF – 84 (4.6%) of all participants in our study.

Conclusions: The awareness of the Bulgarian population about AH is relatively high, but the control of BP in the established hypertensives is insufficient. The awareness is unsatisfactory about other important indicators for cardiovascular risk – waist circumference, body-mass index and level of blood sugar despite the significant percentage of people affected by obesity (general and/or abdominal), dyslipidemia and/or diabetes.